In most cases, those in Western cultures are taught, both implicitly and explicitly, to know abiotic 'nature' as something that is separate from and inferior to humans (Bai, 2009; Berry, 1988; Capra, 1982), lacking consciousness (Plumwood, 2002), and inanimate. As such it is more easily portrayed as a resource to be used (Capra, 1982), and not even considered to be a possible research or reading partner.