"While some academics may be inclined to view the mystical and the spiritual as 'irrational,' the processes of intuition and creativity are, in fact, more trans-rational than irrational."


"The point here is that the mystical or spiritual aspects of our conscious experience are by no means contrary to, or otherwise opposed to, rationality; rather, they transcend rationality."


"Thus when a composer writes a great piece of music, the inspiration that gives rise to the music is a trans- or non-rational process, but in the process of committing the new music to paper the composer does not therefore ignore all of the rational and logical rules of harmony and theory...." (Astin, 2004, n.p.)


The "important point", argues Astin (2002), "is that academia has for far too long encouraged us to lead fragmented and inauthentic lives, where we act either as if we are not spiritual beings, or as if our spiritual side is irrelevant to our vocation or work" (n.p.). See Dillard (2006b), Four Arrows (2008), and Shahjahan (2005) for further discussion of these issues.