ancient ways persecuted

For instance, many who practice ancient ways of knowing have been persecuted and had to either stop, keep silent, or go underground (Behnsen, 2006; Conway, 2001; Devlet, 2001; Harvey & Wallis, 2007; see also, Plumwood, 2002; Smith, 2004; Williams, 2005). The ways of knowing required for dialogue with animate Earth are seldom acknowledged nor explicitly talked of in Western cultural and academic contexts, other than in anthropological accounts of 'other' cultures. These result in difficulty acknowledging and sometimes including revealed knowledge in research accounts.

The relative silence surrounding explicit discussions of importance of trans-rational epistemologies (Astin, 2002), whether explicit or implicit, amounts to a form of colonization (see Dillard, 2003b; Tuhiwai Smith, 1999). In Canada, this silence is most visibly evident in processes of intensive colonization of Aboriginal peoples, including ways in which government residential schools attempted to de-legitimizing and eradicate what are often referred to as indigenous ways of knowing. In other instances, it is evident in kinds of relations people have with other animals, plants, and non-human-persons (see Fawcett, 2006). It is not only Indigenous peoples, but Europeans as well who are in need of decolonization – which, as hooks (1992a) defines it, is a "process of cultural and historical liberation; an act of confrontation with a dominant system of thought" (p. 1).

What is the academy willing/ready to let go of? To embrace?